Desain, P., & Honing, H. (1994). Advanced issues in beat induction modeling: syncopation, tempo and timing. In Proceedings of the 1994 International Computer Music Conference. 92-94. San Francisco: International Computer Music Association.


This paper presents a theory of beat induction based on the notion of expectancy. It focuses on important characteristics of beat induction that seem to be elegantly captured by the model: the possibility of syncopation and the dependency of the induced beat on global tempo and expressive timing.

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