Honing, H. (2003) The final ritard: on music, motion, and kinematic models. Computer Music Journal, 27(3). 66-72.


This text is a comment on a family of formal models of the final ritard, the typical slowing down at the end of a music performance, and how the shape of the timing patterns might relate to, or can be explained by, models of human motion. The discussion is presented in the form of a tale, with three fictitious characters (P, M, and their musical friend MF) who represent the different disciplines involved in this research (psychology, mathematics/computer science, and musicology).

Full paper (pdf) (or free reprint at MIT press)